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ID2007: The Indices of Deprivation 2007

The Indices of Deprivation 2007 are measures of deprivation for every Super Output Area (SOA) in England. The indices were published by Communities and Local Government in 2007 and are closely related to the Indices of Deprivation 2004 published by the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister in 2004.  The differences between ID2004 and 2007 primarily relate to changes in social welfare benefits which have necessitated changes in the data sources for some domains.  These indices follow in a succession of central government indices of deprivation of which the previous version was the Indices of Deprivation 2000 (ID2000, also commonly known as the Index of Multiple Deprivation 2000 or IMD2000). Like ID2004, ID2007 was constructed for the government by the Social Disadvantage Research Centre at the University of Oxford under the directorship of Prof Mike Noble and it is therefore also common to find the indices referred to as the "Noble index". The index has been calculated at the SOA, rather than the individual, level and was one of the first data series to be published for the new SOA geography used by the Neighbourhood Statistics Service.

ID2007 has been constructed by the aggregation of data from multiple sources, including the 2001 census and data from government administrative systems, grouped together under seven "domains" or dimensions of deprivation. The specific measures included do not all relate to exactly the same time period, nor are they all aggregated in the same way but they are very similar to the domains used in 2004. The calculation and combination of the different measures and domains is complex, reflecting the ongoing discussion about the most appropriate way to assess and weight the different aspects of deprivation, which are common to all attempts to construct single indicators of such complex phenomena.

For full details of all the measures included in the index, the full documentation should be consulted, but the following table shows the measures included in each of the seven deprivation domains.

Deprivation domain  Specific measures included 
Income deprivation  Adults and children in income support households; Adults and children in Income Based Job Seekers Allowance households; Adults and children in Pension Credit Guarantee Households; Adults and children in Working Families Tax Credit households where there are children in receipt of Child Tax Credit whose equivalised income (excluding housing benefits) is below 60% of median before housing
Costs; Adults and children in Child Tax Credit Households whose equivalised income (excluding housing benefits) is below 60 per cent of the median before housing costs; National Asylum Support Service (NASS) supported asylum seekers in England in receipt of subsistence only and accommodation support
Employment deprivation  Recipients of Jobseekers Allowance (both contribution-based and incomebased): men aged 18-64 and women aged 18-59; Recipients of Incapacity Benefit women aged 18-59 and men aged 18-64; Recipients of Severe Disablement Allowance women aged 18-59 and men aged 18-64; Participants in New Deal for the 18-24s who are not in receipt of Job Seekers Allowance; Participants in New Deal for 25+ who are not who are not in receipt of Job Seekers Allowance; Participants in New Deal for Lone Parents 
Health deprivation and disability  Years of Potential Life Lost (YPLL); Comparative Illness and Disability Ratio (CIDR); Measures of acute morbidity derived from Hospital Episode Statistics; The proportion of adults under 60 suffering from mood or anxiety disorders, based on prescribing, Hospital Episode Statistics, suicides and Incapacity Benefits data
Education, skills and training deprivation  Average test score of pupils at Key Stage 2; Average points test of pupils at Key Stage 3; Best of 8 average capped points score at Key Stage 4 (GCSE/GNVQ and equivalent); Proportion of young people not staying on in school or non-advanced further education above 16; Secondary school absence rate; Proportion of those aged under 21 not entering Higher Education; Proportions of working age adults (aged 25-54) in the area with no or low qualifications  
Barriers to housing and services  Household overcrowding; LA level percentage of households for whom a decision on their application for assistance under the homeless provisions of housing legislation has been made, assigned to the constituent SOAs; Difficulty of Access to owner-occupation; Road distance to a GP surgery; Road distance to a general stores or supermarket; Road distance to a primary school; Road distance to a Post Office or sub post office 
Living environment deprivation   Social and private housing in poor condition; Houses without central heating; Air quality; Road traffic accidents involving injury to pedestrians and cyclists  
Crime   Burglary; Theft; Criminal damage; Violence  

The scores and ranks within England for each SOA are published separately for each ID2007 domain and for the overall index. Individual data for all the component measures are not published and the index cannot therefore be readily recalculated by the user or recast for other geographical units. Geographical linkage of other datasets to SOAs was the most widely used method of applying 2004 deprivation scores to external datasets and the 2007 may be linked in the same way.  The use of the same SOAs for both 2004 and 2007 indices means that they are directly comparable geographically.

Additional Resources

The full information on the Indices of Deprivation 2007, including downloadable data, is available from the Communities and Local Government website [http://data.gov.uk/dataset/index_of_multiple_deprivation_imd_2007 ]