Exploring online research methods - Incorporating TRI-ORM

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Open/close headingOnline research methods

Open/close headingGeneral

The ESRC Research Development Initiative
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.rdi.ac.uk.

The Researcher Development Initiative supports the training and development of researchers in the social sciences at all stages of their career. Established by ESRC’s Training and Development Board, RDI contributes to the development of a robust national training infrastructure intended to drive forward research training in a systematic way.

RDI aims to facilitate the production and deployment of a range of activities and resources, including student-led activities; training for research students and researchers throughout their career; regional training events; and the development and use of new tools and packages for training purposes.

The Researcher Development Initiative is linked closely with other ESRC training activities and resources, such as the National Centre for Research Methods, and the Research Methods Programme.

The ESRC Research Methods Programme 2002-2007
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.ccsr.ac.uk/methods/.
The programme formed part of Council's strategy to improve the standards of research methods across the UK social science community. Its funding aimed to:

  • support substantively focused research that poses interesting or novel methodological issues;
  • foster work that directly enhances methodological knowledge or improves and advances quantitative and qualitative methods;
  • encourage and support the dissemination of good practice, including the enhancement of training programmes and training materials for the research community;
  • establish Fellowships linked to research funded through this Programme, or linked to existing centres of methodological excellence;
  • promote cross-national initiatives involving substantively focused and methodologically innovative research.

ESRC National Centre for Research Methods
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.ncrm.ac.uk/.
An organisation aiming to provide a strategic focal point for the identification, development and delivery of an integrated national research, training and capacity-building programme. Aims to promote a step change in the quality and range of methodological skills and techniques used by the UK social science community, and to provide support for, and dissemination of, methodological innovation and excellence within the UK.

ESRC National Centre for eSocial Science
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.ncess.ac.uk/.
An organisation aiming to help social scientists to make the best use of new and emerging e-science technologies in their research, providing information, training, advice, support and online resources. Also advises on the future strategic direction of e-social science.

ESRC Social Sciences Online 'Research Methods' discussion topic
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.sosig.ac.uk/ socsciweek/blog/?cat=2
.
Social science research and the Internet: intriguing tangent, or core business? - Christine Hine

Part of the Social Sciences Online: Past, Present and Future virtual event held during the ESRC Social Science Week (20th-24th June 2005) to look at how the internet is changing the face of social science research. Article written by Christine Hine with related discussion postings.

The Oxford Internet Institute
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.oii.ox.ac.uk/
A first point of call for anyone seeking to address the impact of the internet on social life. Resources such as lectures, seminars, conferences and publications cover the most up-to-date thinking in many areas of debate such as gender and racial digital divide - providing an overall context for hands-on online research.

References Related to the Internet & Psychology, Azy Barak, PhD, University of Haifa, Israel
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://construct.haifa.ac.il/~azy/refindx.htm
Wide range of references including a comprehensive section on internet research methodology and ethics.

Digital Research Tools (DiRT)
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://digitalresearchtools.pbwiki.com/
A wiki drawing together information on a wide range of tools and resources that 'can help scholars (particularly in the humanities and social sciences) conduct research more efficiently or creatively'.

Survey Resources Network
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.surveynet.ac.uk/
The Survey Resources Network is a service funded by the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC)to co-ordinate and develop ESRC activities related to survey research methods. The aim of the Network is to provide a coherent and integrated approach to the development of skills and knowledge, the dissemination of research findings and research resources, and the promotion of best survey practice.

 

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Open/close headingAssociations

AOIR - Association of Internet Researchers
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.aoir.org/.
The Association of Internet Researchers (AOIR) is an academic association dedicated to the advancement of the cross-disciplinary field of Internet studies. It is a resource and support network promoting critical and scholarly internet research independent from traditional disciplines and existing across academic borders. The association is international in scope.

DGOF - German Society for Online Research
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.dgof.de/.
The German Society for Online Research co-hosts the German Online Research Conferences (GOR) and supports activities that serve to advance, and improve the quality of Online Research and Internet Science.

ICA - International Communication Association
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.icahdq.org/.
An International academic association for scholars interested in the study, teaching, and application of all aspects of human and mediated communication.

 

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Open/close headingOnline questionnaires

Open/close headingKey links

Web Survey Methodology
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.websm.org/.
This website aims to provide information on new technologies in data collection, with a focus on web surveys. It includes an extensive bibliography, discussion forum, news and events. The bibliography includes case studies, sampling, non-response, design, incentives and technology. Also includes a selection of articles and guides. The following links are to the more comprehensive guides available. They provide an overview of each subject and include references to to additional resources and, in some cases, to the relevant codes of conduct of market research societies. They are in pdf format and require Adobe Acrobat ([External Link - opens in a new window]link to Adobe Reader).

Guide to incentives:
http://www.websm.org/uploadi/editor/goeritz2005-incentives.pdf

Guide to Survey Design:
http://www.websm.org/uploadi/editor/1133803522kaczmirek2005-survey-design.pdf

Guide to Standards:
http://www.websm.org/uploadi/editor/1133803871kaczmirek-schulze2005-standards.pdf

Guide to Choosing Software:
http://www.websm.org/uploadi/editor/kaczmirek2004-choosing-survey-software.pdf

Edinburgh-Southampton Social Psychology Web-lab
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://socpsy.psy.ed.ac.uk.
Website set up by researchers involved in an ESRC project on gender stereotypes (Prof Constantine Sedikides, University of Southampton; Dr Alison Lenton, University of Edinburgh) in order to carry out the studies connected to the project. Lists current and previous studies carried out by the team alongside links to other collections of online experiments and questionnaires.

How to Put Questionnaires on the Internet, Dr Paul Kenyon
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.flyfishingdevon.co.uk/ salmon/internet_questionnaires/ internet_questionnaires.htm.

An excellent learning module from SALMON (Study and learning Materials online), by Paul Kenyon, formerly of The University of Plymouth, Department of Psychology. Designed to introduce students to the use of the internet for collecting research data. It is related to the particular software and systems in use in the department, but also contains a wealth of general information of use to those aiming to produce online questionnaires in a range of different contexts.

Online survey design guidelines
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://lap.umd.edu/survey_design/guidelines.html.
A collection of tips on design, navigation, accessibility and usability issues collated from key literature in the field, based at the University of Maryland.

Association for Survey Computing
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.asc.org.uk/.
Professional association for Survey Computing in the UK. Includes a searchable database of software for survey creation, administration and analysis.

 

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Open/close headingListings of online studies

Lab-United - International Online-Research
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.w-lab.de/lab-united/actual.php.

The Social Psychology Web-lab.
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://socpsy.psy.ed.ac.uk (Contains links to
listings of online studies).

Online Psychology Research UK
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.onlinepsychresearch.co.uk/ (Specifically advertises for participants from the UK).

 

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Open/close headingListings of software and services for online questionnaire production

Evans, J. R. and Mathur, A. (2005) The value of online surveys, Internet Research, 15, 2, 195- 219.
An examination of the involvement in online surveys of the largest US-based and global market research firms. Provides an extensive list of the services offered as of late 2004.

The WebSM searchable database
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.websm.org/index.php ?fl=0&p1=1123 &p2=82&p3=1086 &id=1086
Database of online questionnaire software and services which has entries categorised by type, code, cost, language and country.

The Association for Survey Computing searchable software register
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.asc.org.uk/ Register/index.htm
Searchable register which includes information about the software it contains such as listings of the features offered and suppliers.

Web-based survey software
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.web-based-surveys.com/
Directory of software which can be browsed or accessed using the 'software finder' which allows users to specify the features they require.

 

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Open/close headingServices offering software plus hosting

The following examples are chosen as being representative of some of the different types of services available as of December 2005. In each case, a range of comparable options may be available.

Bristol Online Surveys
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.survey.bris.ac.uk/
Targeted at institutions requiring the option to have a number of different surveys and survey administrators. Highly customisable to the style needs of institutions including an option to run surveys on their server with an address that appears to be that of the institution.

Globalpark
[External Link - opens in a new window]http://www.globalpark.com

Provides 'EFS Survey' software which offers relatively advanced features and a high degree of flexibility. Also makes the software available to academic researchers for a nominal fee through [External Link - opens in a new window] unipark providing excellent value for these users where advanced functionality is required.

SurveyConsole/QuestionPro
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.surveyconsole.com/ / [External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.questionpro.com/
Both are divisions of the [External Link - opens in a new window]surveyanalytics company and they use the same software and interface, but with different pricing. May offer sponsored use for academic or not-for-profit projects if certain conditions are met. Also offer a range of free resources such as articles and question templates.

Surveymonkey
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.surveymonkey.com/
Compares well with many of the other available services in terms of features, but is one of the cheapest commercial options.

Surveywriter
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.surveywriter.com/site/
Relatively expensive, but unusual in that charges are not made per period of use, but per completed survey and email invitation with a minimum of 200.

Qualtrics
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.qualtrics.com/
A range of relatively sophisticated features. targeted at individual researchers or at institutions. Offers academic pricing and free use for academic projects if certain conditions are met. Also has a range of resources such as articles on online questionnaires and copyable templates of questionnaires and questions.

Websurveyor
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.websurveyor.com/
Relatively expensive, but with a wide range of features. Offers both hosting and software only solutions.

Zoomerang
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.zoomerang.com/
Offers pricing for not-for-profit and educational institutions. Also offers a range of research services such as questionnaire administration, panel services and translation.

 

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Open/close headingOpen-source questionnaire software

Open/close headingGeneral information

SourceForge.net
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://sourceforge.net
Searchable repository of open source projects.

Freshmeat.net
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://freshmeat.net/
Listing of new software releases.

OSS Watch: Top Tips For Selecting Open Source Software
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.oss-watch.ac.uk/ resources/tips.xml
Page from the website of OSS, a JISC-funded open source advisory service. Offers guidance on selecting open source software.

 

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Open/close headingExamples of questionnaire software

The following are some of the main examples of open source software for online questionnaires (generally the more established and/or sophisticated options). A range of other options may be available.

LE Survey
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://le-survey.sourceforge.net/
Designed as a tool for running questionnaires as part of longitudinal studies. Allows respondents' responses to be matched to responses to previous questionnaires while maintaining confidentiality. In early stages of development at the time of writing.

phpESP
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://phpesp.sourceforge.net/
Well-established software with a working demo available allowing the features and user-interface to be tested.

LimeSurvey
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.limesurvey.org/
A range of relatively sophisticated features. Well-established with useful documentation. Working demos are available allowing the features and user-interface to be tested.

Mod_Survey
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.modsurvey.org/
Well-established with sophisticated features such as dynamic content generation depending on previous answers. Requires the user to learn to use XML syntax particular to the software.

VTSurvey
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://vtsurvey.sourceforge.net/
Easy to use and particularly useful for straightforward questionnaires as only the four main types of questions are supported (Multiple choice with radio buttons and Check boxes, and short and long text entry boxes).

 

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Open/close headingCommercial questionnaire software

The following are some examples of commercial software for online questionnaires. A range of other options are available.

ProntoSurvey
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.bebosoft.com/
Shareware tool from Bebosoft which can be downloaded for Mac as well as windows. Relatively inexpensive and straightforward to use with clear and extensive documentation and tutorials.

Questionmark Perception
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.questionmark.com/uk/home.htm
An educational assessment tool which offers many of the key features needed to create basic online questionnaires and has some of the more advanced features such as randomisation of questions and conditional branching. Potentially useful option if the software is available through the researcher's institution.

SelectSurveyASP
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.classapps.com
Relatively inexpensive. Offers 'classic' and 'advanced' versions with different levels of features at different prices. Has a working online demo and a useful example survey which includes comments on the features illustrated by particular questions. Offers a free installation service and free technical support.

Snap Surveys
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.snapsurveys.com/
Extensive options for mixed-mode surveys, offering a 'core product', Snap Professional, with add-ons for questionnaires via internet and PDAs, and to allow scanning and multiple data entry. Expensive example of 'high-end' options.

SphinxSurvey
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.sphinxsurvey.com
Extensive analysis tools including a version offering lexical analysis. Educational and public-sector pricing offered.

StatPac
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.statpac.com/
The online questionnaire software does not include analysis tools, but it can be purchased alongside the statistics tools offered. Has basic statistical tools or an advanced version allowing multivariate statistical techniques. Technical support and updates are available free for three months, but are chargeable via annual support/maintenance agreements thereafter. A fully-functional version of the software can be downloaded and used for free, limited to 35 respondents for each survey. Download includes tutorials and extensive user guide.

 

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Open/close headingSoftware for online interviews

Open/close headingGeneral

Thinkofit Web Conferencing Guide
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.thinkofit.com/webconf/index.htm
An extensive listing of different types of software and services for online communication and collaboration, maintained by David R. Woolley.

OpensourceCMS
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.opensourcecms.com/
Website offering demonstrations of open-source software including discussion board software. Allows users administrative rights to make changes to an installation of the software which are then 'reset' every two hours.

OSS Watch: Top Tips For Selecting Open Source Software
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.oss-watch.ac.uk/resources/tips.xml
Page from the website of OSS, a JISC-funded open source advisory service. Offers guidance on selecting open source software.

 

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Open/close headingWeb design and development

Open/close headingHTML

Getting started with HTML
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.w3.org/MarkUp/Guide/.
A good basic introduction to HTML from the World Wide Web Consortium. (W3C).

HTML Goodies
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.htmlgoodies.com/.
A range of short tutorials designed to help you with specific aspects of web design.

HTML Reference
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.w3schools.com/tags/ref_byfunc.asp.
List of HTML tags organised by their function, from W3Schools.

World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) HTML Validator
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://validator.w3.org/.
Enter a link to your web pages or upload a local file to check that your HTML meets web standards and guidelines.

HTML Tidy
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.w3.org/People/Raggett/tidy/.
Automatically cleans up HTML to correct any problems caused either by mistakes or automatic production of invalid HTML by web editors.

WC3 Links Checker
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://validator.w3.org/checklink.
Automatically checks for broken links in an HTML document.

 

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Open/close headingCascading Style Sheets

Cascading Style Sheets (CSS)
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.w3.org/MarkUp/Guide/Style.html.
An introduction to Cascading Style Sheets from W3C.

CSS Reference
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.w3schools.com/css/css_reference.asp.
A reference to the properties and possible values that can be applied to different elements of an HTML page from W3Schools. Also offers further information on the use of different properties.

W3Schools CSS Tutorial
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.w3schools.com /css/default.asp
Tutorials which include examples and quizzes.

The Worldwide Web Consortium (W3C)'s CSS page
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.w3.org/Style/CSS/
Offers a wealth of information on CSS.

W3C CSS Validator
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://jigsaw.w3.org/ css-validator/.
Makes it possible to check that your CSS meets web standards and guidelines by entering a link to your CSS file, uploading your file from your computer, or pasting your CSS into a text box on the page.

Writing Efficient CSS
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.communitymx.com/ content/article.cfm?cid=90F55
A useful article by John Gallant and Holly Bergevin on using CSS 'short hand' properties to reduce the size of CSS files and increase efficiency.

 

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Open/close headingJavaScript

JavaScript Primers
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.htmlgoodies.com/primers/jsp/.
30 short JavaScript lessons with learning activities.

JavaScript examples
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://JavaScript.internet.com/.
Over two-thousand examples of JavaScripts organised into sub-sections.

JavaScript use in forms
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.irt.org/ script/form.htm.
A range of JavaScript examples with source code specifically related to web-forms.

 

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Open/close headingAccessibility

W3C Web Accessibility Initiative guidelines (WAI)
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.w3.org/ WAI/intro/wcag.php
Document which explains how to make Web content accessible to people with disabilities. Includes checkpoints of actions that will improve accessibility and gives each checkpoint a priority rating according to its importance. Also has links to explanations of how the checkpoints can be achieved with HTML and CSS.

Vischeck
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.vischeck.com/vischeck/
A service which simulates the appearance of pages to users with different forms of colour blindness to allow pages to be tested for suitability for colour-blind users.

DEMOS Project - Guide to accessible web pages: User control
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://jarmin.com/demos/ access/control.html
A guide to making changes to the display of web pages in different browsers.

TechDis
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.techdis.ac.uk/.
A Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC)-funded advisory service on accessibility issues in education. Contains useful resources and 'how to' guides on accessibility.

Macromedia (now Adobe)'s Accessibility Resource Center
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.adobe.com/accessibility/.
Offers general guides to accessibility and accessible design as well as specific guidance on how to increase the accessibility of HTML and multi-media produced with Macromedia products such as Dreamweaver and Flash.

 

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Open/close headingDesign issues

Usability news: Wichita State University Software Usability Research Lab
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://psychology.wichita.edu/surl/usability_news.html.
Newsletter providing a range of articles with information on research into software and website design and usability.

Usable Information Technology
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.useit.com/.
Leading site on usability and user studies by Jacob Neilson.

Web-safe colours
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.lynda.com/resources/webpalette.aspx.
Offers tables of web-safe colours organised by either hue (colour) or value (lightness). Makes it easier to design appropriate colour schemes.

W3C Browser information
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.w3schools.com/browsers/default.asp
Information on the main browsers available at the time of writing is available on the Worldwide Web Consortium (W3C) website along with statistics on the usage levels of each (though it should be noted that the statistics are based on users of the site and should thus be generally considered to be skewed in favour of more technically proficient users).

 

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Open/close headingForm validation

Open/close headingClient-side validation using JavaScript

Form Validation Using Javascript
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.4guysfromrolla.com/webtech/091998-1.shtml
An example of form validation using JavaScript with explanations from the 4guysfromrolla.com site.

Javascript form validation – doing it right
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.xs4all.nl/~sbpoley/webmatters/formval.html
Interesting discussion of validation using JavaScript aiming to point out some of the main pitfalls.

 

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Open/close headingServer-side validation

Depending on the technology used, the following links may provide a useful source of information, tutorials and examples on how to add server-side validation.

Open/close headingPHP/MySQL
Books

Sklar, C. (2004) Learning PHP. Sebastapol, CA. O'Reilly.
Chapter 6: Making web forms.
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.oreilly.com/ catalog/learnphp5/

Coggeshall, J. (2005) PHP Unleashed. Indianapolis. SAMS.
Chapter 4: Working with Forms in PHP.
Chapter 5: Advanced Form Techniques.
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.samspublishing.com/ title/067232511X

 

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Open/close headingASP.NET

Microsoft's ASP.NET framework offers a number of ready-made web controls designed to carry out server-side and, where available, Client-side validation of web forms. These include controls that check required fields have been completed, that check that data in particular ranges or patterns has been entered (e.g. in the format of a telephone or credit-card number), and that compare data from one form element for consistency with that from another.

ASP.NET Quickstart tutorials: Validating Form Input Controls
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.asp.net/ QuickStart/aspnet/ doc/validation/default.aspx
A useful tutorial on how these controls work with code examples.

Form Validation with ASP.NET - It Doesn't Get Any Easier!
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.4guysfromrolla.com/ webtech/090200-1.shtml
Another step-by-step guide.

Books

Mitchell, S. (2003) Teach yourself ASP.NET. Indianapolis. SAMS.
Chapter 12. Validating User Input with Validation Controls.
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.samspublishing.com/ title/0672325438#

Walther, S. (2003) ASP.NET. Unleashed. Indianapolis. SAMS.
Chapter 2: Building Forms with Web Server Controls.
Chapter 3: Performing Form Validation with Validation Controls.
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.samspublishing.com/ title/0672325438#

 

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Open/close headingPERL/CGI

Form Validation with Perl/CGI
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.elated.com/ tutorials/ programming/ perl_cgi/ form_validation/
An introductory tutorial for adding validation using PERL/CGI.

Book

Guelich, S., Gundavaram, S. and Birznieks, G. (2000) CGI Programming with Perl. Sebastapol, CA. O'Reilly.
Chapter 4: Forms and CGI;
Chapter 8: Security (available as a sample chapter).
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.oreilly.com/ catalog/ cgi2/ toc.html

 

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Open/close headingServer-side processing technologies

Open/close headingGeneral

Open/close headingBooks

A good source of information is through the websites of key publishers in the field of web development. These include the following publishers:

O'Reilly
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.oreilly.com/

Peachpit Press
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.peachpit.com/index.asp

SAMS
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.samspublishing.com/index.asp

These sites offer facilities to search for titles related to particular technologies and also offer sample chapters and articles. They also offer access to Safari Bookshelf, which is one of the most convenient access points for books on these technologies online. It offers searchable access to the titles of these and other key publishers in the field for viewing onscreen or for downloading.

Other publishers which are not included in Safari Bookshop offer similar searchable websites and online access to their catalogues, e.g:

WROX
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.wrox.com/WileyCDA/

Apress
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.apress.com/

 

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Open/close headingWebsites

W3Schools
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.w3schools.com/
Provides information and tutorials on a range of server-side technologies including ASP, PHP, SQL, and ASP.NET.

Webmonkey
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.webmonkey.com/
General web-design resource. The programming section of the 'How-to library' includes tutorials on ASP, PHP, ColdFusion, and Perl/CGI

 

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Open/close headingPHP/MySQL

Open/close headingBooks

Coggeshall, J. (2005) PHP Unleashed. Indianapolis. SAMS.

Kent, A., and Powers, D. (2004) PHP Web development with Macromedia Dreamweaver MX 4557. Berkeley, CA. Apress.

Naramore, E., Gerner, J., Le Scouarnec, Y., Stolz, J. and Glass, M. K. (2005) Beginning PHP5, Apache, and MySQL Web Development. Indianapolis. WROX.

Sklar, D. (2004) Learning PHP. Sebastapol, CA. O'Reilly.

Sklar, D. and Trachtenberg, A. (2003) PHP Cookbook. Sebastapol, CA. O'Reilly.

Ullman, L. (2005) PHP and MySQL for Dynamic Web Sites. Berkeley, CA. Peachpit Press.

Welling, L. and Thomson, L. (2004) PHP and MySQL Web Development. Indianapolis. SAMS.

Zandstra , M. (2005) Teach Yourself PHP in 47 Hours, 2nd Edition. Indianapolis. SAMS.

 

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Open/close headingWebsites

Codewalkers
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://codewalkers.com/
Offers a wide range of reources on PHP and MySQL including tutorials

PHP
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://uk.php.net/manual/en/introduction.php
An introduction to PHP from the official website which includes a very useful introductory tutorial.

MySQL Tutorials
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.php-mysql-tutorial.com/
A series of tutorials on how to use PHP and MySQL to create and administer databases.

 

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Open/close headingASP.NET / ASP

The resources below refer to ASP.NET which has been designed to supercede ASP. However, at the time of writing ASP remains a commonly-used server-side technology and a wide range of resources are available offering information and tutorials in its use.

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Duthie, G. A. and MacDonald, M. (2003) ASP.NET in a Nutshell. Sebastapol, CA. O'Reilly.

Hart, C., Kauffman, J., Sussman, D. and Ullman, C. (2005) Beginning ASP.NET 2.0. Indianapolis. WROX.

Kittel, M. A. and LeBlond, G. T. (2004) ASP.NET Cookbook. Sebastapol, CA. O'Reilly.

Martinez, J. and Parnell, R. (2003) ASP.NET Development with Dreamweaver MX. Berkeley, CA. Peachpit Press.

Mitchell, S. (2003) Teach yourself ASP.NET. Indianapolis. SAMS.

Walther, S. (2003) ASP.NET. Unleashed. Indianapolis. SAMS.

 

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ASP.NET Quickstart Tutorial
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.asp.net/ QuickStart/aspnet/ Default.aspx
Detailed tutorials on using ASP.NET including information on how ASP.NET controls are used with code examples.

4 Guys from Rolla
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.4guysfromrolla.com/
Searchable resource with articles and tutorials on specific aspects of ASP.NET.

 

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Open/close headingCGI/PERL

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Colburn, R. (2003) Teach yourself CGI. Indianapolis. SAMS.

Guelich, S., Gundavaram, S. and Birznieks, G. (2000) CGI Programming with Perl. Sebastapol, CA. O'Reilly.

 

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CGI Programming 101
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.cgi101.com/
Tutorials aimed at beginners with information on how to set up a development environment using CGI/PERL and how to process forms and write data to files.

CGI Made Really Easy - or, Writing CGI scripts to process Web forms
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.jmarshall.com/easy/cgi/
Basic introduction to collecting and formatting information from forms.

Elated
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.elated.com/tutorials/ programming/perl_cgi/
Tutorials covering a basic introduction to CGI programming with PERL along with issues such as validation and emailing.

 

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Open/close headingColdFusion

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Brooks-Bilson, R. (2003) Programming ColdFusion MX. Sebastapol, CA. O'Reilly.

Camden, R., Chalnick, L., Buraglia, A. C. and Forta, B. (2005) Macromedia ColdFusion MX 7 Web Application Construction Kit. Berkeley, CA. Macromedia Press.

DeHaan, J. (2004) ColdFusion Web Development with Macromedia Dreamweaver MX 4557. Berkeley, CA. Apress.

Mohnike, C. (2003) Teach Yourself Macromedia ColdFusion in 21 Days. Indianapolis. SAMS.

 

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Macromedia's Support Centre for ColdFusion - Tutorials
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.macromedia.com/ support/coldfusion/ tutorial_index.html
A wide range of tutorials. Part of the ColdFusion Support Center which includes resources, technical notes and a forum.

 

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Open/close headingJSP

Open/close headingBooks

Bergsten, H. (2003) JavaServer Pages, Third Edition. Sebastapol, CA. O'Reilly.

Brunner, R. (2003) JSP: A Practical Guide for Programmers. San Fransisco, CA. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers.

Holzner, S. (2002) Teach Yourself JavaServer Pages in 21 Days. Indianapolis. SAMS.

Perry, B. W. (2004) Java Servlet & JSP Cookbook. Sebastapol, CA. O'Reilly.

 

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Caucho JSP Tutorials
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.caucho.com/resin-3.0/ jsp/tutorial/index.xtp
Covers topics including form processing and emailing form contents.

 

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[Open/close heading]Online codes of conduct

Many academic and professional research organisations publish codes of conduct which cover key points of legislation.

Some examples include:

American Psychological Association.
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.apa.org/ethics/.

American Political Science Association.
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.apsanet.org/section_513.cfm.

Association for Computing Machinery (US).
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.acm.org/about/code-of-ethics.

Association for Practical and Professional Ethics (US).
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.indiana.edu/~appe/.

British Computer Society: Handbook of Ethics for Health Informatics Professionals.
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.bcs.org/server.php?show=nav.5911.

British Educational Research Association: Research guidelines.
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.bera.ac.uk/publications/guidelines/.

British Medical Association.
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.bma.org.uk/.

British Psychological Society. Code of Ethics and Conduct (applicable from 31 March 2006 onwards)
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.bps.org.uk/the-society/ code-of-conduct/code-of-conduct_home.cfm.

Economic and Social Research Council: Research Ethics Framework (pdf).
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.esrc.ac.uk/_images/Framework_for_Research_Ethics_tcm8-4586.pdf.

The RESPECT project. Funded by the European Commission’s Information Society Technologies (IST) Programme to draw up professional and ethical guidelines for the conduct of socio-economic research.
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.respectproject.org/main/index.php.

The Center for the Study of Ethics in the Professions at Illinois Institute of Technology also has vast collection of codes of ethics, organized by professional category. Many of the categories include examples from places other than the UK and US.
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://ethics.iit.edu/codes/index.html.

 

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[Open/close heading]Ethical guidelines for online research

The British Psychological Society (2007) Conducting Research on the Internet.
supplementary guidance document to the BPS Code of Ethics and Conduct, focusing on additional ethical and practice issues inherent in internet mediated research.
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.bps.org.uk/the-society/ code-of-conduct/code-of-conduct_home.cfm.

Bruckman, A. (2002a) Ethical Guidelines for Research online.
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.cc.gatech.edu/~asb/ethics/.

Ess, C. and AoIR Ethics Working Committee (2002) Ethical decision-making and internet research: recommendations form the AoIR ethics working committee.
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.aoir.org/reports/ethics.pdf.

National Committee for Research Ethics in the Social sciences and the Humanities (NESH), Norway. Research ethics guidelines for internet research.
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.etikkom.no/ English/ Publications/ internet03/.

American Association for the Advancement of Science. Ethical and Legal Aspects of Human Subjects Research in Cyberspace.
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.aaas.org/spp/sfrl/projects/intres/main.htm.

Suler, J. (2000) Ethics in cyberspace research.
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.rider.edu/~suler/psycyber/ethics.html.

Internet research ethics. Papers from a panel presentation organized for the Computer Ethics: Philosophical Enquiries (CEPE) conference held at Lancaster University, December 14-16, 2001.
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.nyu.edu/projects/nissenbaum/ ethics_elgesem.html.

Hill M. L., King, C. B., Eckert-Denver, C., Gibson, E., Pankoff, B. and Rice, T. (2004) The Ethics of Online Research: Issues, Guidelines and Practical Solutions.
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://home.oise.utoronto.ca /~scottlab/colin.pdf.

 

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[Open/close heading]Useful resources for online research ethics

Research Methods Festival 2008 - Session 35: e-Research Ethics in the Social Sciences
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.ncrm.ac.uk/TandE/RMF2008/index.php?session=35/
Powerpoint presentations from the 2008 Festival sessions on online research ethics.

Online Research Methods Ethics Mailing List.
To subscribe email [M] majordomo@cc.gatech.edu and place in the message body 'subscribe online-research-ethics'.

The Association of Internet Researchers -A(o)IR - Ethics Working Group.
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.cddc.vt.edu/aoir/ethics/index.html.
Webspace of the AOIR Working Group established to formulate a set of values that all internet researchers should uphold when research involves humans.

The Information Ethics Group, Oxford University Computing Laboratory.
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://web.comlab.ox.ac.uk/ oucl/research/ areas/ieg/.
Webspace of a research group focusing on the Philosophy of Information and, in particular, the conceptual foundations of Computer Ethics.

The International Center for Information Ethics.
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://icie.zkm.de/.
An academic website set up as a platform for exchanging information about worldwide teaching and research in information ethics.

MediaMOO Symposium: The Ethics of Research in Virtual Communities.
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://collections.lib.uwm.edu/cipr/image/32.pdf.
Log of the symposium held on January 20th, 1997, as part of MediaMOO's fourth birthday celebration to discuss ethical issues raised by doing research in virtual communities.

The Confidentiality And PRIvacy group (CAPRI).
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.ccsr.ac.uk/capri/.
Webspace of CAPRI, University of Manchester, UK - a multidisciplinary team of researchers set up to investigate the confidentiality and privacy issues that arise from the collection, dissemination and analysis of data.

The ETHICS website.
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.prs.heacademy.ac.uk/projects/ethics/index.html.
Web pages produced by the ETHICS Project, a one year initiative funded by the LTSN (now the Higher Education Academy). Aims to provide a useful resource for new teachers of ethics looking for ideas on course development, and also for experienced ethicists for whom it provides a 'snapshot' of current teaching and learning priorities.

The Online Research Ethics Course.
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://ori.hhs.gov/education/ products/montana_round1/ research_ethics.html.
Online course developed through the Practical Ethics Center at the University of Montana with Office of Research Integrity (ORI) support during the 2002-03 academic year.

 

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Open/close headingResources from an international perspective

Digital Divide Network.
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.digitaldivide.net/.
An online community for educators, activists, policy makers and concerned citizens working to bridge the digital divide. Users can build their own online community, publish a blog, share documents and discussions with colleagues, and post news, events and articles.

Bridges.org.
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.bridges.org/.
An international non-profit organisation that promotes the effective use of ICT in the developing world to reduce poverty and improve people's lives.

The World Internet Project.
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.worldinternetproject.net.
A project which originated at the University of California, Los Angeles Center for Communication Policy and which has set out to investigate and document the impact of the spread of internet usage.

Connect-World.
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://Connect-World.com.
A series of magazines in which decision makers in the telecommunications and information technology sectors discuss their opinions about the impact of these technologies upon Global and regional development.

BBC News: Special report on the digital divide.
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/ special_report/ 1999/10/99/ information_rich_information_poor/ 466651.stm.
Series of news articles and related links from 1999. Includes case studies about Burkina Faso, Mongolia, Morocco and the United States.

Information Technologies and International Development
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.mitpressjournals.org/loi/itid.
Journal focusing on the intersection of information and communication technologies (ICT) with international development.

World Summit on the Information Society
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.itu.int/wsis/.
Website reporting on the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS), the first phase of which took place in Geneva hosted by the Government of Switzerland from 10 to 12 December 2003. The second phase took place in Tunis hosted by the Government of Tunisia, from 16 to 18 November 2005.

id21 viewpoints: World Summit on the Information Society. What did it achieve for ICTs and Development? What did it ignore?
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.id21.org/ viewpoints/ WSISNov05.html.
Reflections from Richard Heeks of the University of Manchester on the 2005 World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS).

 

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Open/close headingUseful resources for copyright, data protection and internet law

Cyber-Rights and Cyber-Liberties
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.cyber-rights.org/
A non-profit civil liberties organisation which aims to promote free speech and privacy on the internet.

Internet Law and Policy Reform
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.ilpf.org/
An international nonprofit organization dedicated to the sustainable global development of the internet through legal and public policy initiatives.

Lawrence Lessig (Stanford Law School)
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.lessig.org/
Home page of the author of Code and Other Laws of Cyberspace. Contains news on issues such as copyright on the internet of relevance to Lessig's work.

The Council of Europe. Convention on Cybercrime
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://conventions.coe.int/ Treaty/Commun/ ListeTraites.asp? MA=49&CM=7&CL=ENG
Provides the full text of the Council of Europe's convention on cybercrime including the additional protocol on rascist acts. Provides explanatory reports and summaries.

UK Information commissioner's site
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.ico.gov.uk
Website of the independent official appointed by the Crown to oversee the Data Protection Act 1998 and the Freedom of Information Act 2000. Contains a range of information about UK legislation on these issues.

European Commission Privacy on the Internet- An Integrated EU Approach to online data Protection
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.europa.eu.int/comm/justice_home/fsj/privacy/
A general site by the European Commission that deals with data protection issues.

Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC): Data protection webpages
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.jisclegal.ac.uk/LegalAreas/DataProtection.aspx
A range of data protection resources including a code of practice and a briefing paper.

The University of Essex: Data protection webpages
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www2.essex.ac.uk/rm/dp/dppol.shtm
Comprehensive information about the University's data protection policies, including background information and links.

Lancaster University: Data Protection Project 2000-01
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.dpa.lancs.ac.uk/
A website aiming to provide a guide to Higher Education Institutions in the UK in complying with the Data Protection Act 1998.

 

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Open/close headingOnline experiments

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Psychological Research on the Net
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://psych.hanover.edu/research/exponnet.html
Extensive list of online experiements organised chronologically by general topic area.

Social Psychology Network
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.socialpsychology.org/expts.htm
List of online experiements maintained by Scott Plous of the Wesleyan University, USA.

The Social Psychology Web-lab
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://socpsy.psy.ed.ac.uk
Website of the Edinburgh-Southampton Social Psychology Web lab which has links to experiments run by the lab itself along with links to listings of online studies.

Online Psychology Research UK
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.onlinepsychresearch.co.uk/
List of experiments which specifically advertises for participants from the UK.

The Web Experiment List
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.wexlist.net/
List of online experiments maintained by Ulf-Dietrich Reips. Also has links to publications by Reips.

The Web Experimental Psychology Lab
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.psychologie.unizh.ch/ sowi/Ulf/Lab/ WebExpPsyLab.html
List of online experiments along with an outline of the history of online experiments and a discussion of their use. Also maintained by Ulf-Dietrich Reips.

Wextor
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://wextor.org/wextor/en/
A free web-based tool that allows users to design and visualize laboratory experiments and web experiments in a guided step-by-step process.

 

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Open/close headingPublications

Birnbaum, M. H. (Ed.) (2000) Psychological Experiments on the Internet. San
Diego. Academic Press.
Publisher's website: [External Link - opens in a new window] http://books.elsevier.com/

[External Link - opens in a new window] http://psychexps.olemiss.edu/Scrapbook/ Psychological%20Experiments %20on%20the%20Internet.html
Introduction to the book from the 'Phychexperiments' website at the University of Mississippi.

Mathy, R. M., Kerr, D. L., and Haydin, B. M. (2003) Methodological rigor and ethical considerations in Internet-mediated research. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 40, 77-85.
Journal link: [External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.apa.org/journals/pst/

Nosek, B. A., Banaji, M. R., and Greenwald, A. G. (2002) E-research: Ethics, security, design, and control in psychological research on the Internet. Journal of Social Issues, 58, 1, 161-176.
Journal link: [External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/ doi/abs/10.1111/ 1540-4560.00254

Reips, U-D. (2002) Internet-based psychological experimenting: Five dos and five don'ts. Social Science Computer Review, 20, 3, 241-249.
Journal link: [External Link - opens in a new window] http://ssc.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/20/3/241

Reips, U-D. (2002) Standards for Internet-based experimenting. Experimental Psychology, 49, 4, 243-256.
Journal link: [External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.psyjournals.com/ content/e8l1777212686570/? p=be4836914f4648e185034029a4f109e5&pi=1

 

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Open/close headingResearch methods in general

Social Science Information Gateway - Research Methods
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.sosig.ac.uk/roads /subject-listing/ World-cat/meth.html.
Links to a wide range of resources related to qualitative and quantitative research methods.

The Web Center for Social Research Methods
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/.
A site based at Cornell University including a 'Knowledge Base' - an online hypertext textbook on applied social research methods including defining a research question, sampling, measurement, research design and data analysis. Also includes an online statistical advisor and research methods tutorials.

Research Methods Resources on the WWW
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.slais.ubc.ca/resources/research_methods/.
Site maintained by Mary Sue Stephenson of the School of Library, Archival and Information Studies at the University of British Columbia. Contains links to a wide range of resources connected to different areas of research methods.

Online QDA
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://onlineqda.hud.ac.uk/.
An ESRC-funded set of training support materials which address common problems (both early and advanced) of using Qualitative Data Analysis (QDA) methods and selected Computer Assisted Qualitative Data AnalysiS (CAQDAS) packages.

Resources for Evaluation and Social Research Methods
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://gsociology.icaap.org/methods/.
This site links to online books, manuals and guides about evaluation and social research methods, such as surveys, observations, and others. There are also links to sites about data quality, statistical analysis, presenting statistical analysis, and free software such as statistical software, office suites, spreadsheets and more.

Research Methods and Statistics Arena
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.researchmethodsarena.com/.
Collection of resources on Research Methods and Statistics. Includes books and journal article listings, RSS feeds of the latest available books, conference listings, blog posts and discussions.

Methods for Social Researchers in Developing Countries
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://srmdc.net/.
A free Web-based course on social research methods written especially for students and staff in developing countries, but would also be useful for anyone attempting a research project for the first time. The website is sponsored by the Sudan-American Foundation for Education, Inc. and the Ahfad University for Women in Sudan and has been created by Dr Lee Burchinal. The content of the site is based on a book produced by the Ahfad University and covers all aspects of conducting a research project, including learning to think like a researcher, choosing a question and a research design, collecting and analysing data and reporting results. The site also contains a useful glossary, an extensive page of links and a relevant bibliography. A Help tutorial is also provided for Internet novices.

 

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Open/close headingVarious

E-Society
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.york.ac.uk/res/e-society/
An academic research programme investigating the impact of the internet on society.

World Internet Usage Statistics
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm
Estimates of the number of internet users in different areas of the world.

MobileResearchForum
[External Link - opens in a new window] http://mrf.ecdc.info/index.php.
For people involved in mobile research or with an interest in mobile technology.

 

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